Saturday, January 12, 2013

Organizing Theoretical Frameworks of Learning


After reading the following article, I made a quick chart to start to conceptualize the given information on the theories of learning ... 

Greeno, J. G., Collins, A. M. & Resnick, L. B (1996). Cognition and learning. In D.C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 15-46). New York: MacMillan.

Issues of Theoretical and Practical Conceptualization


Behaviorist/Empiricist
Locke, Thorndike, Skinner
Cognitive/Rationalist
Descartes, Piaget
Situative/Pragmatist-Sociohistoric
Dewey, Mead, Vygotsky
Influence

Influenced:

Gestalt Psyc, Constructivism, Symbolic Information Processing
Influenced by:

Ethnography, Ecological Psyc, Situation Theory
Nature of Knowing
Organized accumulation of associations and skills
Understanding concepts in different domains + general cognitive abilities
Knowledge is distributed among people and includes their environment (includes objects, artifacts, books, communities)
Stimulus Response Association Theory

 Parallel-Distributed Connectionism
Schemata, Conceptual Understanding, Reading/Writing, Problem Solving/Reasoning, Strategies/Competencies, Metacog Processes, Epistemological Beliefs
Practices of Community

Interaction with Physical Environment
Nature of Learning







Assoc. and skills are acquired.








Constructive process of conceptual growth, involving reorganization of concepts

Conceptual Learning

Learning Problem-Solving Representations and Procedures
Learning is “attuned to constraints and affordances of material and social systems with which they interact”

Learning occurs through participation

Apprenticeship
 Nature of Transfer
Transfer occurs when behaviors in one situation are utilized in another
Transfer depends on schema

Transfer occurs when the learner understands the invariants
Nature of Motivation and Engagement
Motivation is a state of the learner, involving incentives for relevance

Extrinsic Motivation à rewards, punishments, incentives, reinforcements

Decision-making Theory
Intrinsic interest of learners in ideas and concepts

Children are naturally motivated to learn

Challenge, fantasy, curiosity (Malone, 1981)
Engaging members in the goals of the community

Students are engaged in learning when they are in a community where learning is valued
Designing Learning Environments
Routines for Classroom Activities, direct instruction, drills, few contextual activities

Clear goals, feedback, reinforcement

Individualization with technology
Interactive environments for construction of understanding

Problem-solving, exploratory, using manipulatives, realia, interactive computer programs, simulations
Participation in social practices of inquiry and learning

Develop positive epistemic identity

Learning to participate in discourse, discussing students answers, thinking, process, student-created problems, Jigsaw. GoogleDocs
Formulating Curricula
Sequential
Simple à Complex

Sequential
Students Issues à Real World Issues

Attention to generality and cross-curricular themes, reciprocal teaching, activities, benchmark lessons
Discourse and representation (graphical)

Sequencing by students progress

Formulating and solving realistic problems, projects
Constructing Assessments
Tests routine information and skills

Standardized Achievement Tests

“How much” has a student learned about x
Performance Assessments, projects, portfolios, presentations

Uses interviewing, experiments

Credits variety of excellence
Assess participation in inquiry and social practices of learning

Assessments encourage thinking